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The socio-political situation that created Central Asia after its annexation to Russia, the social contradictions mentioned above, could not but affect ideological trends. One of the most important ideological questions that advanced people of that time faced was the question of attitude to secular culture, primarily to Russia and Russian culture. The best and most progressive minds were aware that the terrifying reality of the disenfranchised position
of the people, the oppression of the emir’s despotism, the complete arbitrariness of the ruling classes, and lack of culture could no longer be tolerated. These ideas and moods took shape in the ideological movement, called enlightenment; his ancestors is Ahmad-Mahdum Donish (1827-1897), nicknamed “Kalla” i.e. “Head”.
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