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Biological invasions form a major threat to the sustainable provision of ecosystem products and services, both in man-made and
natural ecosystems. Increasingly, efforts are made to avoid invasions or eradicate or control established invaders. It has long been recognized that remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) could contribute to this, for instance through mapping actual invader distribution or areas at risk of invasion. Potentially GIS could also be used as a synthesising tool for management of interventions aiming at invasive species control. This paper reviews the application of remote sensing and GIS in mapping the actual and predicting the potential distribution of invasive species. Distinction is made into four categories of invasive species based on whether they appear in and dominate the ecosystem canopy or not. We argue that the possibility to apply RS to map invaders differs between these categories. Our review summarizes RS techniques applied in here and outlines the potential of new RS techniques. It also demonstrates that RS has so far been applied predominantly to canopy dominant species. This contrasts with ecological databases revealing that the large majority of invasive species do not dominate the canopy. The mapping of these invaders received little attention so far. In this paper we will review various possibilities to map non-canopy invader species. The paper also reviews techniques used to map the risk of invasion for areas not invaded so far.
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