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Energy is a crucial input in any industrial process, and thus directly determines to a great extent, the ecological impact of the manufacturing process and the products of any industry. Waste heat emission occurs in more or less all processes. The extent of energy in these low-grade waste heat emissions can be huge and losses, both economic and in terms of energy, can amount to considerable values. A waste heat recovery technology generates power by using the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no extra fuel input. The quality of the total amount of wasted energy is relatively low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Novel and effective energy conversion technologies are essential in order to assure the production of electricity without generating environmental pollution. Among them, low-grade heat sources are considered as suitable candidates for the new energy sources. For low temperature waste heat recovery applications, a superior technology that may be used is the Organic Rankine Cycle. The purpose of this paper is to study and explore the potential of waste heat recovery, especially the application of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology in the industrial sector. The study focuses on overview of energy scenario, basic thermodynamic processes of ORC, and working fluids with key aspects of
their selection in the cycle and applications of ORCs with a concluding remark that Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a viable technological option for low-grade waste heat recovery.
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